1914

World War 1 declared

On June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, were assassinated by a Bosnian Serb nationalist in Sarajevo. A month later, July 28, Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.

During August, nation states across Europe and beyond get involved in the fight and the conflict cascades:

  • Germany declares war on Russia, France, and Belgium.
  • Austria declares war on Belgium.
  • Montenegro, France and Britain declare war on Austria
  • Britain, Austria, Montenegro and Japan declare war on Germany.

As Australia and New Zealand are part of the British Empire the Australian Government announced that as Britain is at war, so too is Australia.

On April 25, 1915, ANZAC forces land at on the Gallipoli Peninsular at Cape Helles, Turkey. The aim is to is to capture the Ottoman capital at Constantinople (now Istanbul). This campaign proves to be an unmitigated disaster. Over the next nine months, the Allies suffered more than 200,000 casualties. 

During the four years of the Great War six honorary medical officers, nine resident medical officers, 89 nursing staff and nine of male non-medical staff saw active duty overseas.

Dr. T. S. Frizell was killed in action.

Sister Edith Blake died when the hospital ship Glenart Castle was torpedoed in 1917.

In all, Seven Prince Henry trained nurses were awarded the Royal Red Cross and one the Greek Medaille Militaire. 

Sister Dorothy Cawood was one of seven Australian Army Nursing Service (AANS) nurses was awarded the Military Medal for her courage in the care of patients during the bombing of a casualty clearing station in Calais, a most unusual distinction for a nursing sister.

Seven AANS nurses were awarded the Military Medal "for acts of gallantry and devotion to duty under fire"

Sister Dorothy Cawood
Sister Clara Deacon
Sister Mary Jane Derrer
Sister Alice Ross-King
Sister Alicia Kelly
Sister Rachael Pratt
Sister Pearl Corkhill
Video presentation by Randwick & District Historical Society: Coast Hospital Nurses who served in World War 1
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